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Exam topics

  1. Body fluid compartments, composition, measurement
  2. Forms of trans-membrane transport of substances
  3. Ion distribution on the cell membrane, resting membrane potential
  4. Action potential of neurons and skeletal muscles
  5. Mechanism of heart muscle contraction, its regulation
  6. Spreading of action potential in the myocardium
  7. Action potential in working myocardial cells
  8. Myocardial contraction. Differences from contraction of skeletal muscles
  9. Excitation - contraction coupling in the myocardium
  10. Homeometric and heterometric regulation of myocardial contractility
  11. Phases of heart contraction. Function of the heart valves.
  12. Cardiac output (including its regulation and measurement)
  13. Interactions between blood pressure and blood flow in vessels
  14. Factors determining arterial blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure. Measurement.
  15. Arterial blood pressure regulation
  16. Organ blood flow autoregulation  (metabolic, myogenic)
  17. Neural control of blood flow distribution
  18. Coronary blood flow
  19. Circulatory changes during increased body load
  20. Lymph production, lymph circulation, regional differences
  21. Effect of body position on hemodynamics. Orthostasis.
  22. Determining factors of alveolar gas and arterial blood composition, effect of dead space volume, FRC
  23. Mechanism of inspiration and expiration, respiratory muscles
  24. Factors determining lung compliance and airway resistance, work of breathing
  25. Causes and consequences of inequalities in pulmonary ventilation, perfusion and in ventilation/perfusion ratio
  26. Transport of O2 and CO2 across the alveolo-capillary membrane, perfusion and diffusion limitation
  27. Hemoglobin dissociation curve, types of hypoxia
  28. Transport of CO2 in the blood
  29. Chemical and neural regulation of breathing
  30. Cough and its functional implications
  31. Functional differences between the greater and lesser circulation
  32. Functional significance of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
  33. Physiology of the sojourn at high altitude
  34. Renal blood flow. Regulation, relationship with glomerular filtration.
  35. Factors determining glomerular filtration rate
  36. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow
  37. Tubular reabsorbtion of glucose
  38. Transport of sodium and water in proximal tubule, measurement of tubular transport
  39.  Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
  40. Handling of K+, urea and ammonia in the kidney
  41. Forming of concentrated and diluted urine, regulation of plasma osmolarity
  42. Acid-base balance regulation, role of the kidneys
  43. Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction
  44. Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
  45. Regulation of skeletal muscle tone, gamma system, voluntary contraction
  46. Red blood cells. Origin, function, ontogenesis.
  47. Blood groups, Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus
  48. Platelet function
  49. Equilibrium of blood coagulants and anticoagulants
  50. Motility of the digestive tract, its regulation, role of the enteric nervous system
  51. Secretion in the digestive tract (including saliva and bile)
  52. Digestion and absorption of main types of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids)
  53. Absorption of water and solutes in gastrointestinal tract
  54. Metabolism of iron, phosphates and calcium, maintenance of calcemia
  55. Thermoregulation and its ontogenetic development
  56. Mechanisms of action of hormones
  57. Hormones of the anterior pituitary system, their importance for individual development
  58. Hormones of posterior pituitary gland
  59. Circadian rhythms, melatonin
  60. Endocrine function of the thyroid gland
  61. Glucocorticoids
  62. Hormones of the adrenal medulla
  63. Endocrine function of testes
  64. Endocrine function of ovaries, menstrual cycle
  65. Placenta (transport and regulatory functions)
  66. Hormonal changes during pregnancy
  67. Parturition
  68. Functional changes in the newborn immediately after the birth (breathing, circulation)
  69. Regulation of glycemia – insulin, glucagon, other hormones
  70. Endothelial function
  71. Physiological roles of nitric oxide (NO)
  72. Signal transmission in the NS, synapses, decrement
  73. Function of glial cells
  74. Types of nerve fibers, conductance
  75. Synaptic receptors metabotropic and ionotropic
  76. Blood brain barrier
  77. Reflex and non-reflex functions of the CNS
  78. Functions of the spinal cord
  79. Regulatory mechanisms of posture and balance
  80. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  81. Functions of the thalamus
  82. EEG, evoked potentials
  83. Reticular formation, modulatory systems
  84. Sleep and wakefulness
  85. Pain
  86. Limbic system, motivation, emotion
  87. Types of memory
  88. Principle of engram formation
  89. Function of the neocortex, specialization of hemispheres
  90. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems
  91. Neurotransmitter systems with predominantly excitatory effects
  92. Neurotransmitter systems with predominantly inhibitory effects
  93. The eye as a optical apparatus
  94. Function of the retina
  95. Hearing, middle and inner ear functions, conversion of sonic waves to electric signals
  96. Vestibular apparatus, nystagmus
  97. Smell and taste
  98. Somatic sensations

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